Paths and timings of the peopling of Polynesia inferred from genomic networks – Nature


  • 1.

    Low, S. Hawaiki Rising: Hōkūle‘a, Nainoa Thompson, and the Hawaiian Renaissance (Univ. of Hawaii Press, 2019).

  • 2.

    Kirch, P. V. On the Road of the Winds (Univ. of California Press, 2017).

  • 3.

    Mulrooney, M. A., Bickler, S. H., Allen, M. S. & Ladefoged, T. N. High-precision courting of colonization and settlement in East Polynesia. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, E192–E194 (2011).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • 4.

    Schmid, M. M. E. et al. How 14C dates on wooden charcoal improve precision when courting colonization: the examples of Iceland and Polynesia. Quat. Geochronol. 48, 64–71 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 5.

    Kahō‘āli‘i Keauokalani, K. Kepelino’s traditions of Hawaii. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 206 (1932).

  • 6.

    Cook, J. The Journals of Captain James Cook on his Voyages of Discovery (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1955).

  • 7.

    Kirch, P. V. & Green, R. C. Hawaiki, Ancestral Polynesia (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2001).

  • 8.

    Minster, R. L. et al. A thrifty variant in CREBRF strongly influences physique mass index in Samoans. Nat. Genet. 48, 1049–1054 (2016).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 9.

    Gray, R. D., Drummond, A. J. & Greenhill, S. J. Language phylogenies reveal enlargement pulses and pauses in Pacific settlement. Science 323, 479–483 (2009).

    CAS  PubMed  Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • 10.

    Walworth, M. Eastern Polynesian: the linguistic proof revisited. Ocean. Linguist. 53, 256–272 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 11.

    Martinsson-Wallin, H., Wallin, P. & Anderson, A. Chronogeographic variation in preliminary East Polynesian building of monumental ceremonial websites. J. Island Coastal Archaeol. 8, 405–421 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 12.

    Wilmshurst, J. M., Hunt, T. L., Lipo, C. P. & Anderson, A. J. High-precision radiocarbon courting reveals latest and speedy preliminary human colonization of East Polynesia. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 1815–1820 (2011).

    CAS  PubMed  Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • 13.

    Spriggs, M. & Anderson, A. Late colonization of east Polynesia. Antiquity 67, 200–217 (1993).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 14.

    Hill, A. V. S. et al. Polynesian origins and affinities: globin gene variants in japanese Polynesia. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 40, 453–463 (1987).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • 15.

    Wollstein, A. et al. Demographic historical past of Oceania inferred from genome-large knowledge. Curr. Biol. 20, 1983–1992 (2010).

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 16.

    Hudjashov, G. et al. Investigating the origins of japanese Polynesians utilizing genome-large knowledge from the Leeward Society Isles. Sci. Rep. 8, 1823 (2018).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 17.

    Skoglund, P. et al. Genomic insights into the peopling of the Southwest Pacific. Nature 538, 510–513 (2016).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 18.

    Posth, C. et al. Language continuity regardless of inhabitants alternative in Remote Oceania. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 2, 731–740 (2018).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 19.

    McColl, H. et al. The prehistoric peopling of Southeast Asia. Science 361, 88–92 (2018).

    CAS  PubMed  Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • 20.

    Emory, Okay. P. The Tuamotuan creation charts by Paiore. J. Polynesian Soc. 48, 1–29 (1939).

    Google Scholar 

  • 21.

    Hunt, T. & Lipo, C. The Statues that Walked (Free Press, 2011).

  • 22.

    Whyte, A. L. H., Marshall, S. J. & Chambers, G. Okay. Human evolution in Polynesia. Hum. Biol. 77, 157–177 (2005).

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 23.

    Duncan, R. P., Boyer, A. G. & Blackburn, T. M. Magnitude and variation of prehistoric chicken extinctions in the Pacific. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110, 6436–6441 (2013).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • 24.

    Steadman, D. W. Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds (Univ. of Chicago Press, 2006).

  • 25.

    Kirch, P. V. et al. Human ecodynamics in the Mangareva Islands: a stratified sequence from Nenega-Iti Rock Shelter (website AGA-3, Agakauitai Island). Archaeol. Oceania 50, 23–42 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 26.

    Rolett, B. V. Voyaging and interplay in historical East Polynesia. Asian Perspect. 41, 182–194 (2002).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 27.

    Handy, E. S. C. The Native Culture in the Marquesas (The Bishop Museum, 1923).

  • 28.

    Weisler, M. I. et al. Cook Island artifact geochemistry demonstrates spatial and temporal extent of pre-European interarchipelago voyaging in East Polynesia. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 113, 8150–8155 (2016).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 29.

    Collerson, Okay. D. & Weisler, M. I. Stone adze compositions and the extent of historical Polynesian voyaging and commerce. Science 317, 1907–1911 (2007).

    CAS  PubMed  Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • 30.

    Slatkin, M. & Excoffier, L. Serial founder results throughout vary enlargement: a spatial analog of genetic drift. Genetics 191, 171–181 (2012).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 31.

    Stephens, M. & Novembre, J. Interpreting principal element analyses of spatial inhabitants genetic variation. Nat. Genet. 40, 646–649 (2008).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 32.

    Wang, C. et al. Comparing spatial maps of human inhabitants-genetic variation utilizing procrustes evaluation. Stat. Appl. Genet. Mol. Biol. 9, 13 (2010).

  • 33.

    Ioannidis, A. G. et al. Native American gene stream into Polynesia predating Easter Island settlement. Nature 583, 572–577 (2020).

    CAS  PubMed  Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • 34.

    Novembre, J. et al. Genes mirror geography inside Europe. Nature 456, 98–101 (2008).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • 35.

    Nei, M. & Kumar, S. Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics (Oxford Univ. Press, 2000).

  • 36.

    Patterson, N. et al. Ancient admixture in human historical past. Genetics 192, 1065–1093 (2012).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 37.

    Peter, B. M. & Slatkin, M. Detecting vary expansions from genetic knowledge. Evolution 67, 3274–3289 (2013).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 38.

    Zhan, S. et al. The genetics of monarch butterfly migration and warning colouration. Nature 514, 317–321 (2014).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • 39.

    Lipson, M. et al. Efficient second-primarily based inference of admixture parameters and sources of gene stream. Mol. Biol. Evol. 30, 1788–1802 (2013).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 40.

    Pickrell, J. Okay. & Pritchard, J. Okay. Inference of inhabitants splits and mixtures from genome-large allele frequency knowledge. PLoS Genet. 8, e1002967 (2012).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 41.

    Leppälä, Okay., Nielsen, S. V. & Mailund, T. admixturegraph: an R bundle for admixture graph manipulation and becoming. Bioinformatics 33, 1738–1740 (2017).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 42.

    Anderson, A. J., Conte, E., Smith, I. & Szabo, Okay. New excavations at Fa’ahia (Huahine, Society Islands) and chronologies of central East Polynesian colonization. J. Pac. Arch. 10, 1–14 (2019).

    Google Scholar 

  • 43.

    Hunt, T. L. & Lipo, C. P. Evidence for a shorter chronology on Rapa Nui (Easter Island). J. Island Coast. Archaeol. (2008).

  • 44.

    Mulrooney, M. A. An island-large evaluation of the chronology of settlement and land use on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) primarily based on radiocarbon knowledge. J. Archaeol. Sci. 40, 4377–4399 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 45.

    Pirazzoli, P. A. & Montaggioni, L. F. Late Holocene sea-stage adjustments in the northwest Tuamotu islands, French Polynesia. Quat. Res. 25, 350–368 (1986).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 46.

    Di Piazza, A., Di Piazza, P. & Pearthree, E. Sailing digital canoes throughout Oceania: revisiting island accessibility. J. Archaeol. Sci. 34, 1219–1225 (2007).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 47.

    Walworth, M. The Language of Rapa Iti (Univ. Hawaii, 2015).

  • 48.

    Dickinson, W. Pacific atoll residing: how lengthy already and till when. Geol. Soc. Am. Today 19, 4–10 (2009).

    Google Scholar 

  • 49.

    Fischer, S. R. Mangarevan doublets: preliminary proof for proto-southeastern Polynesian. Ocean. Linguist. 40, 112–124 (2001).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 50.

    Flenley, J. & Bahn, P. The Enigmas of Easter Island (Oxford Univ. Press, 2003).

  • 51.

    Buck Te Rangi Hīroa, P. H. Vikings of the Sunrise (J. B. Lippincott, 1938).

  • 52.

    Belbin, G. M. et al. Toward a fantastic-scale inhabitants well being monitoring system. Cell 184, 2068–2083.e11 (2021).

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 53.

    Claw, Okay. G. et al. A framework for enhancing moral genomic analysis with Indigenous communities. Nat. Commun. 9, 2957 (2018).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 54.

    Chang, C. C. et al. Second-generation PLINK: rising to the problem of bigger and richer datasets. GigaScience 4, 7 (2015).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 55.

    Tyner, C. et al. The UCSC Genome Browser database: 2017 replace. Nucleic Acids Res. 45, D626–D634 (2017).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 56.

    Thornton, T. et al. Estimating kinship in admixed populations. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 91, 122–138 (2012).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 57.

    The 1000 Genomes Project Consortium. A map of human genome variation from inhabitants-scale sequencing. Nature 467, 1061–1073 (2010).

    PubMed Central  Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • 58.

    Patterson, N., Price, A. L. & Reich, D. Population construction and eigenanalysis. PLoS Genet. 2, e190 (2006).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 59.

    Wickham, H. ggplot2 (Springer, 2016).

  • 60.

    R Core Team. R: a Language and Environment for Statistical Computing https://www.R-project.org/ (2017).

  • 61.

    Alexander, D. H. & Lange, Okay. Enhancements to the ADMIXTURE algorithm for particular person ancestry estimation. BMC Bioinf. 12, 246 (2011).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 62.

    Holmes, S. & Huber, W. Modern Statistics for Modern Biology (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2019).

  • 63.

    Maples, B. Okay., Gravel, S., Kenny, E. E. & Bustamante, C. D. RFMix: A discriminative modeling method for speedy and strong native-ancestry inference. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 93, 278–288 (2013).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 64.

    O’Connell, J. et al. A common method for haplotype phasing throughout the full spectrum of relatedness. PLoS Genet. 10, e1004234 (2014).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 65.

    D’Arcy, P. The Chinese Pacifics: a short historic assessment. J. Pacific Hist. 49, 396–420 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 66.

    Browning, S. R. et al. Ancestry-specific latest efficient inhabitants measurement in the Americas. PLoS Genet. 14, e1007385 (2018).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 67.

    Schroeder, H. et al. Origins and genetic legacies of the Caribbean Taino. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 115, 2341–2346 (2018).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 68.

    Moreno-Estrada, A. et al. The genetics of Mexico recapitulates Native American substructure and impacts biomedical traits. Science 344, 1280–1285 (2014).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • 69.

    Mazumder, R., Hastie, T. & Tibshirani, R. Spectral regularization algorithms for studying massive incomplete matrices. J. Mach. Learn. Res. 11, 2287–2322 (2010).

    MathSciNet  PubMed  PubMed Central  MATH  Google Scholar 

  • 70.

    Reich, D. et al. Reconstructing Native American inhabitants historical past. Nature 488, 370–374 (2012).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • 71.

    Skoglund, P. et al. Origins and genetic legacy of Neolithic farmers and hunter-gatherers in Europe. Science 336, 466–469 (2012).

    CAS  PubMed  Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • 72.

    Moreno-Estrada, A. et al. Reconstructing the inhabitants genetic historical past of the Caribbean. PLoS Genet. 9, e1003925 (2013).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 73.

    Nguyen, L. H. & Holmes, S. Ten fast ideas for efficient dimensionality discount. PLoS Comp. Biol. 15, e1006907 (2019).

    CAS  Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • 74.

    Maaten, L. V. D. & Hinton, G. Visualizing knowledge utilizing t-SNE. J. Mach. Learn. Res. 9, 2579–2605 (2008).

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  • 75.

    Van Der Maaten, L. Accelerating t-SNE utilizing tree-primarily based algorithms. J. Mach. Learn. Res. 15, 3221–3245 (2014).

  • 76.

    McInnes, L., Healy, J. & Melville, J. UMAP: Uniform manifold approximation and projection for dimension discount. Preprint at https://arxiv.org/abs/1802.03426 (2018).

  • 77.

    Diaz-Papkovich, A., Anderson-Trocmé, L., Ben-Eghan, C. & Gravel, S. UMAP reveals cryptic inhabitants construction and phenotype heterogeneity in massive genomic cohorts. PLoS Genet. 15, e1008432 (2019).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 78.

    Hastie, T., Tibshirani, R. & Friedman, J. The Elements of Statistical Learning (Springer, 2009).

  • 79.

    Wittek, P., Gao, S. C., Lim, I. S. & Zhao, L. Somoclu: an environment friendly parallel library for self-organizing maps. J. Stat. Softw. 78, https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v078.i09 (2017).

  • 80.

    Nguyen, L. H. & Holmes, S. Bayesian unidimensional scaling for visualizing uncertainty in excessive dimensional datasets with latent ordering of observations. BMC Bioinf. 18, 65–79 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 81.

    Peter, B. M. & Slatkin, M. The efficient founder impact in a spatially increasing inhabitants. Evolution 69, 721–734 (2015).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 82.

    Pugach, I. et al. The advanced admixture historical past and latest southern origins of Siberian populations. Mol. Biol. Evol. 33, 1777–1795 (2016).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 83.

    Takahata, N. & Nei, M. Gene family tree and variance of interpopulational nucleotide variations. Genetics 110, 325–344 (1985).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 84.

    Peter, B. M. Admixture, inhabitants construction, and F-statistics. Genetics 202, 1485–1501 (2016).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 85.

    Nei, M. Molecular Evolutionary Genetics (Columbia Univ. Press, 1987).

  • 86.

    Patterson, N. et al. Reconstructing Indian inhabitants historical past. Nature 461, 489–494 (2009).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 87.

    Bhatia, G., Patterson, N., Sankararaman, S. & Price, A. L. Estimating and deciphering FST: the affect of uncommon variants. Genome Res. 23, 1514–1521 (2013).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 88.

    Nei, M. & Roychoudhury, A. Okay. Sampling variances of heterozygosity and genetic distance. Genetics 76, 379–390 (1974).

    MathSciNet  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 89.

    Davison, A. C. & Hinkley, D. V. Bootstrap Methods and Their Application (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997).

  • 90.

    Chu, Y. J. & Lui, T. H. On the shortest arborescence of a directed graph. Science Sinica 14, 1396–1400 (1965).

  • 91.

    Edmonds, J. Optimum branchings. J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 71B, 233–240 (1967).

    MathSciNet  MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 92.

    Ceballos, F. C., Joshi, P. Okay., Clark, D. W., Ramsay, M. & Wilson, J. F. Runs of homozygosity: home windows into inhabitants historical past and trait structure. Nat. Rev. Genet. 19, 220–234 (2018).

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 93.

    Huff, C. D. et al. Maximum-likelihood estimation of latest shared ancestry (ERSA). Genome Res. 21, 768–774 (2011).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 94.

    Baharian, S. et al. The Great Migration and African-American genomic range. PLoS Genet. 12, e1006059 (2016).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • 95.

    Gusev, A. et al. Whole inhabitants, genome-large mapping of hidden relatedness. Genome Res. 19, 318–326 (2009).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 96.

    Efron, B. Bootstrap strategies: one other take a look at the jackknife. Ann. Stat. 7, 1–26 (1979).

    MathSciNet  MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 97.

    Botigué, L. R. et al. Gene stream from North Africa contributes to differential human genetic range in southern Europe. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110, 11791–11796 (2013).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • 98.

    Atzmon, G. et al. Abraham’s kids in the genome period: main Jewish diaspora populations comprise distinct genetic clusters with shared Middle Eastern ancestry. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 86, 850–859 (2010).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 99.

    Jobling, M., Hurles, M. & Tyler-Smith, C. Human Evolutionary Genetics (Garland Science, 2013).

  • 100.

    Liang, M. & Nielsen, R. The lengths of admixture tracts. Genetics 197, 953–967 (2014).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 101.

    Palamara, P. F., Lencz, T., Darvasi, A. & Pe’er, I. Length distributions of id by descent reveal fantastic-scale demographic historical past. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 91, 809–822 (2012).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 102.

    Ralph, P. & Coop, G. The geography of latest genetic ancestry throughout Europe. PLoS Biol. 11, e1001555 (2013).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 103.

    Deemer, W. L. Jr & Votaw, D. F. Jr Estimation of parameters of truncated or censored exponential distributions. Ann. Math. Stat. 26, 498–504 (1955).

  • 104.

    Hill, W. G. & White, I. M. S. Identification of pedigree relationship from genome sharing. G3 Genes Genom. Genet. 3, 1553–1571 (2013).

    Google Scholar 

  • 105.

    McVean, G. A. T. et al. The fantastic-scale construction of recombination fee variation in the human genome. Science 304, 581–584 (2004).

    CAS  PubMed  Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • 106.

    Makarenkov, V. & Lapointe, F.-J. A weighted least-squares method for inferring phylogenies from incomplete distance matrices. Bioinformatics 20, 2113–2121 (2004).

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 107.

    Fehren-Schmitz, L. et al. Genetic ancestry of Rapanui earlier than and after European contact. Curr. Biol. 27, 3209–3215 (2017).

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 108.

    Crowe, A. Pathway of the Birds (Univ. Hawai’i Press, 2018).

  • 109.

    Marck, J. C. Topics in Polynesian Language and Culture History (The Australian National Univ., 2000).

  • 110.

    Niespolo, E. M., Sharp, W. D. & Kirch, P. V. 230Th courting of coral abraders from stratified deposits at Tangatatau Rockshelter, Mangaia, Cook Islands: implications for constructing exact chronologies in Polynesia. J. Archaeol. Sci. 101, 21–33 (2019).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 111.

    Kirch, P. V. Tangatatau Rockshelter: The Evolution of an Eastern Polynesian Socio-ecosystem (Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press, 2017).

  • 112.

    Sear, D. A. et al. Human settlement of East Polynesia earlier, incremental, and coincident with extended South Pacific drought. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 117, 8813–8819 (2020).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • 113.

    Kahn, J. G. & Sinoto, Y. Refining the Society Islands cultural sequence: colonisation part and developmental part coastal occupation on Mo’orea Island. J. Polynesian Soc. 126, 33 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 114.

    Conte, E. & Molle, G. Reinvestigating a key website for Polynesian prehistory: new outcomes from the Hane dune website, Ua Huka (Marquesas). Archaeol. Oceania 49, 121–136 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 115.

    Allen, M. S. Marquesan colonisation chronologies and postcolonisation interplay: implications for Hawaiian origins and the ‘Marquesan homeland’ speculation. J. Pac. Arch. 5, 1–17 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  • 116.

    Prebble, M. & Wilmshurst, J. M. Detecting the preliminary affect of people and launched species on island environments in Remote Oceania utilizing palaeoecology. Biol Invasions 11, 1529–1556 (2009).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 117.

    Anderson, A., Kennett, D. J., Culleton, B. J. & Southon, J. in Taking the High Ground (eds. Anderson, A. & Kennett, D. J.) 288 (ANU Press, 2012).

  • 118.

    Kirch, P. V., Conte, E., Sharp, W. & Nickelsen, C. The Onemea Site (Taravai Island, Mangareva) and the human colonization of Southeastern Polynesia. Archaeol. Oceania 45, 66–79 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 119.

    Allen, M. S. & Steadman, D. W. Excavations at the Ureia website, Aitutaki, Cook Islands: preliminary outcomes. Archaeol. Oceania 25, 24–37 (1990).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • 120.

    Matisoo-Smith, E. et al. Patterns of prehistoric human mobility in Polynesia indicated by mtDNA from the Pacific rat. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 95, 15145–15150 (1998).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  ADS  Google Scholar 



  • Source link